전체 제목 저자 출처 학회/발행처
The Impact of the Mere Presence of a Free Version in the Freemium Strategy: Bidirectional Effects of a Free Version on Consumers’ Preference for the Premium Option | 2021.03.05
기타 | 한국마케팅연구 (한국마케팅학회)
프리미엄(freemium)은 기능이 제한된 무료 제품을 고급화된 프리미엄(premium) 유료 제품과 함께 제공함으로써 소비자들이 유료 제품을 구매하도록 유도하는 전략이다. 프리미엄(freemium) 전략은 특히 스마트폰 애플리케이션, 온라인 구매와 같이 디지털 시장에서 소비자를 매혹시키는 수단으로 빈번히 이용되어 왔지만, 아직까지 무료제품의 제공이 소비자의 유료 제품 구매선택에 어떠한 영향을 미치는지에 대한 연구가 부족하다. 본 연구는 제품 시용 및 시연 여부와 무관하게 무료 제품의 존재 자체가 유료 제품 평가 및 선택에 어떠한 영향을 미치는가를 입증하고자 한다. 본 연구는 총 일곱 개의 실험을 통해 기능이 제한된 무료 제품을 제공하는 프리미엄(freemium) 전략을 택한 기업과 무료 제품을 제공하지 않는 경쟁사를 비교하여 무료 제품의 존제 자체가 소비자의 유료 제품 구매 의사에 어떠한 영향을 미치는가를 살펴보았다. 프리미엄(freemium) 전략의 일부로 무료 제품을 제공하는 것은 프리미엄(premium) 유료 제품 구매 의사에 양(兩)방향적, 즉, 긍정적 및 부정적 효과를 미쳤다. 이 효과의 방향성은 의사결정 과정에서 지각된 위험 유무에 따라 결정되며, 소비자는 지각된 위험에 따라 무료 제품의 존재를 다르게 해석하였다. 인지된 위험이 높을 경우, 소비자는 무료 제품 제공을 기업이 프리미엄(premium) 유료 제품 품질을 보장하는 것으로 해석, 높은 구매 의사를 보였다. 반면, 인지된 위험이 낮을 경우, 무료 제품은 프리미엄(premium) 제품의 희소성을 감소시켜 유료 제품 구매에 부정적인 효과를 유발하였다. 따라서 본 연구는 프리미엄(freemium) 전략이 의사 결정 상황, 맥락, 개인차 변인에 따라 인지된 위험이 높아질 경우에 한해 긍정적인 효과를 거둘 수 있음을 입증하였다. 덧붙여 이 효과는 기능이 제한된 제품을 무료로 제공할 경우에 한해 나타나며, 단순히 유료 제품 대비 낮은 가격으로 제공하는 경우에는 효과가 사라진다는 점에서 프리미엄(freemium) 전략의 특수성을 시사한다. In the freemium strategy, a free, basic version of a product is offered to promote a non-free premium version. Although the freemium strategy has become prevalent in the market, little research has investigated its impact on individuals’ purchase decisions. This article focuses on how consumers are influenced by the mere presence of a free version (i.e., without engaging in an actual trial) when evaluating and choosing between premium products. Eight studies (N = 1,012) provide converging evidence that when consumers consider a premium purchase, the presence of a feature-limited free version can either increase or decrease the choice share of the target premium product (i.e., the product with a free version) relative to a standalone premium product (i.e., without a free version). The direction of the influence depends on whether the free version serves primarily as a quality assurance cue or a uniqueness dilution cue, which is ultimately determined by the perceived risk associated with the decision: high (low) perceived risk leads consumers to construe the presence of a free version as a quality assurance cue (uniqueness dilution cue), thereby increasing (decreasing) the preference for the target premium product over a standalone premium product. Consequently, we find that the mere presence of a free version acts in the company’s favor when consumers perceive a high decision risk, regardless of whether the risk is heightened by decision characteristics (use of regular income vs. windfall money for the purchase), contextual differences (negative vs. positive mood), or individual differences (prevention focus vs. promotion focus, and low vs. high need for uniqueness). The bidirectional effects occur only when the basic version is offered free of charge, not when it is offered for a lower price. Theoretical and managerial implications of the findings are discussed.
Who Buys Our Brand? The Influence of Consumption Values and the Congruity with Brand Benefits on Brand Identification, Trust and Loyalty | 2021.02.23
기타 | 한국마케팅연구 (한국마케팅학회)
This paper explores how the positive effect achieved when consumption value matches brand benefit can increase brand loyalty. Prior research on consumption value mainly focused on perceived value; these studies omit consumers’ views of consumption value. Therefore, this study examines the effect of congruence between consumption values (functional, emotional, social, and ethical value) and perceived brand benefits (enabling, enticing, symbolic, and socially responsible benefits) on consumers’ brand identification, trust, and loyalty. We find a positive effect on brand identification and brand trust when a consumer’s value is similar to a brand benefit, particularly between functional value and enabling benefit, and ethical value and socially responsible benefit. However, congruence between consumption value and perceived brand benefit only had an indirect effect on brand loyalty by mediating brand identification and trust. This study provides a basis for implementing a marketing strategy to build brand assets and increase brand loyalty by providing consumers with the value they want in a diversified market.
Is BTS Different? Shared Episodes on SNS as a Good Indicator for Celebrity Endorsed Ad Effects | 2021.02.23
기타 | 한국마케팅연구 (한국마케팅학회)
This study examines the effects of celebrity endorsed advertising from a new perspective of the prior research that emphasizes the matchup between the brand and the celebrity. Due to the recent sharing experiences of the celebrity and their fans on SNS, it is hypothesized that the shared stories would impact viewers’ responses that are often expressed in their likes, dislikes, shares and comments on SNS. In this study, the episodic type of advertising is hypothesized to have more favorable and active responses from viewers than the typical celebrity image-focused ads would have. By crawling and analyzing viewers’ responses on YouTube toward 12 BTS endorsed ads, the hypotheses are confirmed as higher ratio of likes, lower ratio of dislikes and significantly higher ratio of comments over both total views and total likes were found. For the rationale behind, total 1800 comments were categorized into 4 major content types such as attached, experiential, empathic and self-related ones that are all considered as important factors influencing the strong ad effect. The results showed that the episodic ads have marginally more emotional comments than the celeb image ads. The difference was only found in experiential and empathic responses but not in self-related responses. Contrary to the hypothesis, the comments expressing attachment were found more for the celebrity image-focused ads than the episodic ones. It does not seem to suggest that the celebrity image focused ads are better to capture viewers’ attachment towards the celebrity and the ad endorsed, but that the episodic ads draw viewers into relatively deeper level of attachment such as empathy by perceiving the authenticity of the celebrity and the brand. In conclusion, the shared stories on SNS can be a factor in the match-up theory on celebrity endorsed ad effects.
Success Story: How Storytelling Contributes to BTS’s Brand | 2021.02.23
기타 | 한국마케팅연구 (한국마케팅학회)
Good storytelling is at the heart of BTS as both a brand and a band. Modern brands know that story is no longer an option, but a requirement for keeping audiences engaged. With their consistent and creative reliance on story, BTS has transformed the K-Pop landscape, providing a framework for others in the industry that relies on open-structure narratives, sincerity, and active audience engagement, among other components. To investigate BTS’s storytelling strategies, this article breaks down how stories permeate BTS’s content, from music and videos to the Bangtan Universe and documentary films. The importance of transmedia storytelling and participatory audiences is also examined. The analysis resulted in a proposed framework that suggests the following components: 1) story as central to the brand; 2) authenticity and sincerity; 3) idol participation in creative output; 4) use of transmedia storytelling and story gaps; 5) intertextuality and cohesion; 6) opportunities for audience engagement; and 7) dedicated creative staff. Utilizing this framework can help K-Pop groups elevate their brands, better use storytelling elements, and gain larger, more engaged audiences.
“BangBangCon: The Live” - A Case Study On Live Performances and Marketing Strategies With The Korean-Pop Group “BTS” During The Pandemic Scenario In 2020 | 2021.02.23
기타 | 한국마케팅연구 (한국마케팅학회)
In 2020, the unexpected pandemic scenario has led to a downfall of live concerts performances, after the government restriction for events and gatherings with a large number of people. The Korean-Pop (K-Pop) group BTS (Bangtan sonyeondan) also had their concert tour canceled in 2020. Therefore, the group came up with an innovative project to the music market, called “BangBangCon: The Live”, a live streaming paid concert held by the group, on June 14th, which achieved a Guinness World Record for most viewers during a paid music concert, in a live streaming format. It’s important, then, to study this event, and initiate a debate about alternative ideas for marketing strategies with live streaming music performances. The method to accomplish this research was desk research, analysing all the communication delivered from BTS, studying the website and platform where the event “BangBangCon: The Live"" was held, and researching about the results the event has achieved. The results were the description of the event as a project, informing how many people have attended the event, and what were the marketing strategies that made it possible to become the highest audience to a paid live streaming concert, until the moment this article was published.
Labour of Love: Fan Labour, BTS, and South Korean Soft Power | 2021.02.23
기타 | 한국마케팅연구 (한국마케팅학회)
With the steady rise in global popularity of the Korean music group BTS, the South Korean government and surrounding industries have swiftly begun utilizing their image and international recognition for specific nation branding purposes. While K-pop soft power strategies are not novel to the South Korean state, what is new is the rapid speed at which BTS have become a beacon for South Korean culture, language, and symbolism in the international arena. However, few scholarly works have sought to investigate the role fans have played in this heightened position for the group as state representatives, with minimal research conducted into the work fans do within the framework of ARMY fan culture. This paper will thus aim to fill the gap in scholarship on ARMY as an organized labour network, focusing on the role fans play as labourers in online spaces that work to promote, disseminate, and cultivate wider recognition for BTS as artists. Through the conjunct engagement of a political economy framework and theories of participatory culture, this paper will explore the manner through which the free labour of ARMY, premised on affect, has constructed the fandom as active agents of soft power alongside BTS themselves.
“They’re Worth My Investment”: Cultivating Intimacy through Fan-lead Financial and Support Initiatives among BTS Fans | 2021.02.23
기타 | 한국마케팅연구 (한국마케팅학회)
This research outlines the motivations behind the fan-lead marketing and promotional endeavours undertaken by musical group BTS’s fan community, also known as ARMY. In highlighting the reciprocity in intimacy between the group and their fans, I argue that ARMY’s desire to elevate BTS is embedded within structures of affect, despite the financial nature of the benefits the group and their company may reap. These fan-lead initiatives represent efforts towards a common goal, where success, whether it comes in the form of money or not, is a gift of gratitude and a show of mutual understanding from fans to BTS. Based on data from 22 interviews with fans, this research explores the motivations behind fan-lead marketing by looking at the affective properties of music consumption, the parasocial relationship, fan community dynamics, and the purchase of intimacy. Within these contexts, the promotion surrounding BTS’s music, as organized by the fans, mimics profit-oriented behaviours but is ultimately a gesture towards the exchange of intimacy between fans and artist.
BTS from “N.O” to “ON” and BEyond: Innovation in Effective Mental Health Messaging and Modelling | 2021.02.23
기타 | 한국마케팅연구 (한국마케팅학회)
Over seven years, BTS have organically embedded consistent mental health messaging and modelling of various mental health modalities, representing innovation within mental health discourse, within and outside the pop and K-pop culture and fandom. Their personal and artistic journeys have resulted in songs, imagery, and relationship dynamics within the group and within and between their fans ARMY, that organically model behaviours associated with mental health therapeutic modalities and normalize the discussion of mental health and well-being. This practice is vitally important in the effort to end stigma and encourage mental health well-being and recovery. BTS’s authenticity establishes empathy with their audience ARMY and increases their ability to deliver these messages effectively. This includes fostering the creation of a peer support community within the group that extends to their fanbase ARMY, and from which fan-created mental health programs have emerged. BTS’s innovation will be explored by examining content creation throughout their career, illustrating their consistent and organic messaging, culminating in overt and conscious mental health content in their latest album BE, which was released three weeks after the initial paper was presented, and provides proof of concept.
Connect, BTS: An Example of Innovative Transmedia Branding To Rethink Spatiality and Meaning-making | 2021.02.23
기타 | 한국마케팅연구 (한국마케팅학회)
This case study research analyzes the cross-artistic project Connect, BTS and its relationship to transmedia branding, meaning-making and spatiality. After an overview of the argument and a section on methodology, the reader will find the analysis of the case study. Thanks to the use of a qualitative approach, this examination of Connect, BTS unveils the ways in which this initiative becomes a location that allows a reconceptualization of space that fosters plurality, exchange, and subjectivity. Connect, BTS unites seemingly incompatible fields under one project, favoring the co-creation of meanings among different artists, BTS, ARMY (the group’s fans), business partners and viewers. This process has been investigated through content analysis, exploring Connect, BTS’s transmedia strategies from branding to storytelling, to evaluate their efficacy in regard to brand identity, brand experience, and brand trust. The paper will also explore the variety of layers and spatial dimensions contained in Connect, BTS, which flow from art to the music industry, material and digital space, various market sectors and media. In light of this, Connect, BTS embraces a galaxy of separate semantic units into an extended liminal continuum that does not discount difference.
Impact of Negative Word of Mouth on Firm Value | 2021.02.04
기타 | 한국마케팅연구 (한국마케팅학회)
With the development of information and communication technology and spread of smart devices, online information exchange has become a daily routine. Accordingly, the management and utilization of online word of mouth (WOM) has become an important issue for companies. Numerous studies have examined the impact of online WOM on firm performance. This study analyzes the impact of negative word of mouth (NWOM) on firm value, considering the influence of corporate social responsibility (CSR) activity and research and development (R&D) investment. Using a hierarchical linear model, we find that 1) NWOM has a negative impact on firm value, 2) CSR activities do not significantly influence this impact, and 3) R&D investment reduces this negative impact. This study contributes by demonstrating the effect of NWOM on firm value, examining the influence of CSR activities and R&D investment on the impact of NWOM, and confirming that the hierarchical linear model can be applied effectively to panel data in empirical studies. As a practical implication, companies must prevent and manage NWOM, whose impact, when caused by an unavoidable incident, can be alleviated by proactively announcing that the company is striving for competitiveness, for instance, by investing in R&D.
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